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必修三第一单元语法

2015年12月31日 10:05:04 访问量:313

高一英语Unit 1语法

 

制作人:

曹倩

审核人:

郭光宝

制作时间:

2015.2.24

前预习案

回顾下列情态动词的基本含义及用法:

may / might, can / could, will / would, shall / should, must / can

课中探究案

一.情态动词的基本用法

1.       may might的用法

情态

动词

用法

例句

may

might

 

表示允许、许可。否定答语一般要用mustnt,表示“禁止、阻止”之意。

May I watch TV after supper?

Yes, you may. / No, you mustnt.

在表示请求、允许时, mightmay的语气更委婉一些。在日常口语中,用can征询对方意见更为常见。

---Might I use your telephone?

Yes, please.

May / Can I go home now?

Yes, you may / can.

 

表示可能性的推测,含有“或许”“大概”“可能”之意,用might代替may时,则语气显得更加不肯定。

What he said may be true.

She may come tomorrow.

He might have some fever.

 

表示祝愿 

Wish you success!

=May you succeed!

2. cancould的用法

情态

动词

用法

例句

 

can

could

表示能力

Some of us can use the computer now, but we couldnt last year.

表示客观的可能性“有时会”

Anybody can make mistakes.

表示请求和允许。口语中常用could代替can,使语气更加婉转

Can I go now?

Yes, you can.

Could you wait a few days for the money

表示惊异、怀疑、不相信的态度(主要用于否定句、疑问句和惊叹句中)

Can this news be true?

It cant be the headmaster. Hes gone to Beijing.

How can you be so foolish!

3. willwould的用法

情态

动词

用法

例句

 

  will

would

用于表示意志或意愿Will指现在,would指过去

I will never do that again.

They said that they would help us.

表示请求、建议等,用would比用 will委婉、客气些

Will you please take a message for me?

Would you please pass him the book?

表示习惯性动作,译为“总是”“惯于”。Will指现在,would指过去

Fish will die without water.

Every evening, she would sit by the window, deep in thought.

表示预料或猜想

It would be about ten when he left home.

I thought he would have told you about that.

Would used to“过去常常”

 

He used to be a university student.

 

4.shallshould的用法

情态

动词

用法

例句

 

shall

用于第一、第三人称疑问句中,表示说话人征求对方的意见

What shall we do next?

Shall I do the washing-up?

When shall my brother be able to leave hospital?

用于第二、第三人称的陈述句中,表示说话人给对方的命令、警告、允诺或威胁

You shall go with me. ( 命令)

You shall have a new dress for your birthday.(允诺)

He shall be punished.(威胁)

 

should

表示劝告或建议,作“应该”讲

We should be strict with ourselves.

You should keep your promise.

表示推测,作“可能”、“该”讲

The roads should be less crowded today.

I should have finished reading it by Friday.

Why / how + should结构表示说话人对谋事不能理解、感到惊异等意思,译为“竟会”

Why should you be so late today?

(你今天怎么来的这么晚?)

I dont know why you should think that I did it.

 

5.must的用法

情态

动词

用法

例句

 

must

 

表示说话人的主观看法,“必须、必要”。 
在回答引出的问句时,如果是否定的,不能用mustn’t(禁止,不准),而用needn’t, don’t have to(不必). 
 

You must come in time. 
---- Must we hand in our exercise books today? 
---- Yes, you must. 
---- No, you don’t have to / you needn’t. 
 

3) 表示推测、可能性(只用于肯定的陈述句) 
 

1. You’re Tom’s good friend, so you must know what he likes best. 
2. Your mother must be waiting for you now. 
 

“偏偏,非得,硬要”做某事

 

If you must smoke, please go out.

 

Mustnt表禁止

You mustnt smoke here.

二.归类讲解

1.must, may (might) can表示推测的用法

情态

动词

用法

例句

must

只能用于肯定句,表示可能性很大的一种推测,作肯定”“一定

(1) Look, someone is coming. Who can it be?

  It may be the headmaster.

  It can’t be him. He has gone to Shanghai.

  Then it must be Mr. Zhang. He looks like the headmaster.

(2) Can they have finished the work?

   No, they can’t have finished the work so soon.

May /might

用于肯定句中(可能,或许,大概);用于否定句中(可能不)。表示可能性较小的一种推测

can

表示推测时,只用于否定句和疑问句中

2 情态动词的用法:表示应该必须命令和建议
Must 用于表示必须务必
You must keep the place clean. 你务必保持地方干净。
Shall Should 用于表示必须

Each member shall wear a name card. (表示规定)  

每一个会员必须配带名卡。
The rules shall take effect on Jan. 1st. (shall 用于规章等,表示义务和规定)新规则于一月一日起生效。

3. 情态动词+完成式

could/can have done 本来可以;有可能
needn’t have done 本没必要做某事
should / ought to have done 本应该做某事
shouldn’t / oughtn’t to have done本不应该做某事

must have done 肯定做了某事(无否定形式)

4. 表请求和允许 
Can/Could I ask you something ? 我可以问你一件事吗?

May/Might I make a suggestion ? 我可以提个建议吗?
Will you kindly tell me the way to the post office ? 请问到邮局怎么走?(表示客气请求)
Would you give me your address ? 请你告诉我你的地址,好吗?
Shall we talk?  我们谈谈好吗?

尝试演练,合作解疑。

1.       It must be Mr. Li who did it.

No, it _____ be Mr. Li.

A. mustnt   B. cant  C. wouldnt  D. may

2.       Its getting cloudier and cloudier.

Yes, Im afraid it ______ be raining soon.

A. must          B. should       C. might       D. can

3.       I promised to get there before 5 oclock, but now the rain is pouring down. They _____ for me impatiently.

A. may wait   B. ought to wait  

C. could wait   D. must be waiting

4.       ______ you make so much noise?

Sorry, Ill take care not to.

A. Must;    B. Can       C. May      D. Would

5.       On Sundays when I was a child, Father and I _____ get up early and go fishing.

A. could     B. would     C. might      D. should

当堂检测,拓展延伸。

 

1Shall I tell John about it?

No, you ______. I’ve told him already.

A. needn’t    B. wouldn’t                 C. mustn’t     D. shouldn’t

2. Why didn’t you come to see me?

  I ______, but I was too busy yesterday.

   A. like to   B. should like to  

C. would like to have    D. am going to

3. You can’t imagine that a well-behaved gentleman __ be so rude to a lady.

   A. might                   B. need                       C. should        D. would

4. There was plenty of time; she ______.

   A. mustn’t have hurried    B. needn’t have hurried

   C. may not have hurried    D. wouldn’t have hurried

5. When the old man was alive, he ______ sit for hours at the door.

   A. would                    B. could                      C. must                    D. might

五.堂小结,布置作业。

背过情态动词用法,完成课后练习题。

 

课后巩固案

1. — When can I come for the photos? I need them tomorrow afternoon.

  — They_________ be ready by 12:00.

A. can                     B. should                    C. might                   D. need

2. — You know that you were driving 100 km an hour, dont you?

No officer, I ____. This car doesnt do more than 80.

A. may not have been                   B. couldnt have been

C. mustnt have been                   D. shouldnt have been

3. I think he could have joined us, but he ____

A. doesnt               B. did               C. didnt               D. couldnt

4. — You must phone us every week. 

Yes, I _____.

A. must               B. have to               C. will               D. should

5. He was taken away by the police. He ___ for a robber.

A. must be mistaken                      B. was being mistaken              

C. must mistake                          D. must have been mistaken

6. You      buy a gift, but you can if you want to.

A. must    B. mustnt               C. have to     D. dont have to

7. I have told you the truth. ______ I keep repeating it?

A. Must     B. Can         C. May      D. Will

 

 

课下练习题

1) You____ all those clothes! We have a washing machine to do that sort of thing
A) needn't have washed     B) shouldn't have washed 
C) must not have washed    D) can not have washed
2) John's score on the test is the highest in the class; he____ last night.
A) should study B) should have studied C) must have studied D) must have to study
3) The room is in a terrible mess; it ____cleaned. (CET-4, 1996,6)
A) can't have been     B) shouldn't have been

C) mustn't have been  D) wouldn't have been
4) Nobody knows how people first came to these islands. They ____ from South America on rafts.
A) must have sailed B) can sail C) might have sailed D) should have sailed
5) Mary was not in her bedroom yesterday afternoon. She ____ in her classroom.
A) should have been B) must have been C) must be D) should be
6) Bob said he was going to join our club but he didn't. He ____ his mind.
A) can't have changed    B) wouldn't have changed
C) must have changed    D) shouldn't have changed
7) You____ to town to see the film yesterday. It will be on TV tonight.
A) needn't go B) had better not go C) should not go D) needn't have gone
8) We____ the letter yesterday, but it didn't arrive.
A) must receive B) ought to receive C) must have received D) ought to have received
9) With all the work on hand, he____ to the cinema last night.
A) mustn't go B) shouldn't have gone  C) could not go D) couldn't have gone
10) Eve was late for class again. She ____earlier.
A) should get up B) must get up C) need to get up D) should have got up
11) I am feeling sick. I____ so much chocolate.
A) needn't have eaten   B) couldn't have eaten
C) mustn't have eaten   D) shouldn't have eaten
12) I didn't send out my application form last week, but I ____.
A) had B) would do C) should have D) might have to
13) Walking alone in the deserted village, John was scared. He thought he____ Tom to go with him.
A) might have asked  B) should asked C) must have asked D) should have asked
14) When I got to the cinema, the film had already started; I____ there earlier.
A) ought to get B) ought to have got C) must have got D) must get
15) The road was muddy. It____ last night.
A) must rained  B) must have rained  C) must be rained  D) could have rained
 

 

 

 

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编辑:赵奎
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